Zujevina River in Sarajevo Canton
The Sarajevo Canton is located in the Dinaric Mountains, at the contact of two large natural-geographical entities; Danube and Adriatic Sea.
In terms of traffic and geography, this position is of particular importance, intersected by vital communication links, such as north-south direction.
In this direction, which goes along the valleys of the Bosnia and Neretva Rivers, Sarajevo Canton is connected to the Central European and Mediterranean macro regions. The Canton of Sarajevo is connected with Western Europe by the valleys of the Lašva and Vrbas rivers, and the valleys of the Miljacka and Prača rivers with Eastern Europe.
The total area of Sarajevo Canton is 1276.9 km2, which is 2.5% of the total area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The territory of the Sarajevo Canton covers the areas of the municipalities of Centar Sarajevo, Hadžići, Ilidža, Ilijaš, Novi Grad Sarajevo, Novo Sarajevo, Stari Grad Sarajevo, Trnovo and Vogošća.
Sarajevo Canton relief is predominantly mountainous. From the geomorphological point of view, Sarajevo Canton is a distinct mountain area where 78% of the area is in the area above 700 m above sea level, 13% in the hilly region from 550 to 700 m above sea level, while only 9% of the territory belongs to the lowland region below 550 m above sea level. The altitude difference in the Sarajevo Canton ranges from the lowest point of 423 m above sea level (Bosnia River valley near Lješevo) to 2088 m above sea level on Treskavica Mountain.
Hydrological Characteristics of the area
The Sarajevo Canton area is very rich in water, mostly in the form of river flows and springs, and other hydrographic values such as lakes, springs and thermomineral springs are present. Also significant is the work of water, which creates special geomorphological and hydrographic phenomena such as waterfalls, canyons, etc.
Hydrographically, the Sarajevo Canton also includes a part of the watershed between the two main B&H catchment areas. The southern slopes of Bjelasnica and Treskavica belong to the basin of the Adriatic Sea (Rakitnica watercourse), while all other water phenomena (about 93.5% of the surface) gravitate towards the river Bosnia, including the rivers Željeznica, Dobrinja, Miljacka, Vogošća, Ljubin, Misoča, Stavnja and Zujevina and those they belong to the Black Sea river basin.
Most of the river network (about 80% of the surface of Sarajevo Canton) is surface watercourses, which extend in the northern, eastern, western and central areas. Some of the permanent watercourses in the Sarajevo Canton are; Bosnia, Railway, Zujevina, Miljacka, Ljubina, Misoča, Stavnja, Tilava, Dobrinja, Mošćanica, Vogošćanska River, Rakitnica and others.
Causes of floods in Sarajevo Canton
Analyzing the floods that have occurred in the Sarajevo Canton in the last ten years, it can be concluded that the most common causes of floods in the Sarajevo Canton are as follows:
– heavy and prolonged rainfall and sudden melting of snow which cause intensive inflow of large quantities of water into watercourses, which cannot fully accept them;
– torrential and mountainous waters of great destructive effect, which are formed after heavy local showers (large amounts of rain in a short period of time), resulting in the discharge of smaller watercourses and streams, which due to their unpredictable nature and strong currents can carry large quantities of trees, silt and other wastes which can cause extremely serious damage to the infrastructure and population of the affected area;
– high groundwater and surface water levels, poor drainage network in these areas, unregulated and unregulated channels for receiving and draining surface and groundwater;
– unregulated permanent regulation of watercourses on critical sections through larger settlements;
– uncleaned riverbeds of various waste materials, vegetation, spruces, silt and rocks, which all together reduce the flow profile of the watercourse, which ultimately leads to floods;
– insufficient dimensions of flow openings of a number of bridges and culverts;
– unplanned and illegal mass construction of structures on floodplains along watercourses;
– construction of roads on floodplains along watercourses;
– Undeveloped main and auxiliary defense embankments on critical sections of larger watercourses
– unplanned and uncontrolled deforestation in the catchment area of the watercourse, which affects the erosion of the surface layer of the soil and reduces its capacity to absorb larger quantities of water, resulting in faster flow of water into the watercourses, which creates the conditions for floods;
– Uncleaned canal and shafts for the uptake and discharge of atmospheric wastewater in urban urban areas, which, due to heavy local showers (heavy rainfall in a short period of time), cause the basement of residential and commercial buildings to flood, as well as the flooding of roads.
The area proposed for analysis within the FLORIS project is shown in the figures. This is the lower part of the basin, below the HS Blažuj. The upstream sections that pass through the populated part are generally regulated, except for this section. The river bed is neglected in this part, with insufficient capacity, so frequent flooding occurs.